Risk-return ratios indicate the relationship between existing risks and expected returns in an investment. In general, an investment with a higher risk should offer higher returns because of the possibility of more likely losses. When evaluating these metrics, generally risk free interest rates are used as benchmark instruments.

This performance measurement and attribution tool may help you in measuring your portfolio’s performance. Returns-based risk measures for portfolios provide valuable analytics for your evaluation.

Risk and Return Attribution analyzes are performed on the fund portfolios:

- Return Attribution
- Risk Attribution
- Return Graph
- Performance Report

The module analyzes whether the fund managers allocate their portfolio’s assets to various segments, may measure the combined effect of their selection and allocation within a segment.

Performance attribution interprets how investors achieve their performance and measures the sources of value added to a portfolio.

**Sharpe Ratio (SR)**

Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation.

**Information Ratio (IR)**

A benchmark-relative return-versus-risk metric, the information ratio measures the excess return against the benchmark divided by tracking error, where tracking error is a measure of consistency.

**Beta**

A financial instrument’s beta is a measure of its risk or volatility when compared to the market. More volatile markets are capable of providing higher returns, but are also riskier to invest in. Beta is listed as a scale. If an instrument has a beta of one, its volatility matches that of its market. If its beta is less than one, it will be less volatile than the market; if it is greater than one then it will be more volatile.

**Treynor Ratio**

Treynor ratio shows the risk adjusted performance of the fund. Here the denominator is the beta of the portfolio. Thus, it takes into account the systematic risk of the portfolio.

**Jensen's Alpha**

A measure of the return on a portfolio over what the capital asset pricing model predicts, given the beta and market return on that portfolio. The index also adjusts for risk. It is also called Jensen's alpha or Jensen's measure.

**Downside Risk**

This measure is similar to the loss standard deviation except the downside deviation considers only returns that fall below a defined minimum acceptable return (MAR) rather than the arithmetic mean.

**Sortino Ratio**

The Sortino ratio is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but uses downside deviation rather than standard deviation as the measure of risk specified target or required rate of return are considered risky.

**The Modigliani Risk-Adjusted Performance**

The Modigliani Risk-Adjusted Performance measure or M2 is used to characterize how well a portfolio's return rewards an investor for the amount of risk taken, relative to that of some benchmark portfolio and to the risk-free rate.

**Treynor Squared**

This is a deviant of the Treynor measure, and the rationale is the same as that of M2.

**R-Squared**

R-squared measures the relationship between a portfolio and its benchmark. It can be thought of as a percentage from 1 to 100. R-squared is not a measure of the performance of a portfolio. It is simply a measure of the correlation of the portfolio's returns to the benchmark's returns.

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